Jordanian Civic Activists Toolkit II - Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms

General abbreviations

ASF: Advocacy Support Fund, funded by USAID CIS

CBO: Community based organization

CSO: Civil society organization

DPO: Disable People's Organization

DRG: Democracy, Rights and Governance Grants, funded by USAID CIS

GOJ: Government of Jordan

MP: Member of Parliament; deputy

NGO: Non-governmental organization

New Tactics Method: New Tactics in Human Rights Strategic Effectiveness Method

UDHR: Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Organizational abbreviations

Al Masir Center: Al Masir International Center for Studies Research and Training

CSP: Jordan Civil Society Program

CIS: Jordan Civic Initiatives Support program

CVT: Center for Victims of Torture

DAMJ: Damj Company for Community Empowerment

EDMAJ: Prisoners and Prisoners Families After Care Association

FOCCEC: Forearms of Change Center to Enable Community

Greyscale: Greyscale Films

ICCS: Islamic Center Charitable Society

IRCKHF: Information and Research Center - King Hussein Foundation

JREDS: Royal Marine Conservation Society of Jordan

New Tactics: New Tactics in Human Rights Program

PBC-Karak: Princess Basma Development Center - Karak

JOHUD: Jordanian Hashemite Fund for Human Development

SIGI: Sisterhood is Global Institute-Jordan

SUPFW: Specific Union for Productive Farmer Women

Tibneh: Tibneh Charitable Association

UN: United Nations

USAID: United States Agency for International Development

General Advocacy Terms:

ADVOCACY: The act or process of people supporting a cause or proposal or working for change within a rights-based approach. Advocacy should be understood as a means for individuals, constituencies, or organizations to shape public agendas, change public policies, and influence other processes that impact their lives. Advocacy is not one march, meeting or poster, but a series of strategic, interconnected, integrated activities designed to achieve a goal.

ADVOCACY ACTION AREAS: These are action components needed to conduct any advocacy campaign and useful for assessing and evaluating progress.

  • INTERNAL CAPACITY BUILDING: This action area requires attention to an organization’s capacity to carry out advocacy including commitment, structure, mobilization, leadership and decision making
  • RESEARCH: This action area requires attention to gathering information, data, and analysis to develop recommendations for actions on an issue and regarding each of the other components (internal capacity building, mobilization and engagement of decision makers) before, during and after taking action on an issue
  • MOBILIZATION: This action requires attention to engaging and bringing together individuals, organizations and institutions in a collective effort on an issue
  • ENGAGEMENT OF DECISION MAKERS: This action requires attention to understanding and applying power dynamics and decision-making processes to positively affect change on an issue

ALLIES: People, groups or institutions that are working together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose. This relationship can be short-term to long-term depending upon the benefits and degree of common purpose. Active allies are people or organizations that actively and openly support and are involved in your work. Passive allies are people or organizations who support your goals but have not yet become involved in advancing your work. (See Spectrum of Allies)

COLLABORATION: A group of two or more people or organizations working together.

CONSTITUENTS: The people from whom an organization hopes to attract, and continue to attract, support.

GOAL: The aim or purpose toward which an effort is directed.

HUMAN RIGHTS: Inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status.

OPPONENT: A person, group or institution whose aim is to prevent one from achieving their goal. (See Spectrum of Allies)

OUTCOME: The result of an action or series of actions. An outcome may be positive, negative or neutral.

PLAN OF ACTION: The organization of actions to implement strategy and tactics.

PROBLEM: A situation, condition, issue or obstacle that makes it difficult to achieve a desired human rights related objective, purpose or goal.

SPECTRUM OF ALLIES[1]:  A tool for understanding and analyzing the range of allies to opponents regarding an issue

  • ACTIVE ALLIES: You believe you can already count on them to help you.
  • PASSIVE ALLIES: You think they have the same interest, investment or need to solve the problem as you do, and may be close to agreeing with you about your vision, but perhaps may not be able or willing to actively or overtly support you.
  • NEUTRAL: These are people, organizations, institutions that may not know about the problem; may not know about you and your work; have no particular investment in the problem.
  • PASSIVE OPPONENTS: These are people, organizations, institutions that you think have some interests that would be opposed to your vision; they may have relationships with people who are actively opposed to you.
  • ACTIVE OPPONENTS: These are people, organizations, institutions that have a big investment in opposing your position (related to power, position, finances, relationships, etc.).

STRATEGY: A method to carry out a plan of action to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of one or more goals to solve a problem.

TACTIC(S): A specific action or combination of actions taken to affect a given situation. Tactics are how you move a strategy forward.

TACTICAL AIMS: New Tactics in Human Rights has identified four primary human rights-based tactical aims: prevention, intervention, restorative and promotion. Most organizations seeking to advance human rights can only accommodate one or two primary tactical aims within their institutional frameworks. This is due to the time they take to learn, the investment in staffing and the difficulties of raising funds, and the measurement of performance and effectiveness. Having a clear understanding of your tactical aim helps you to more effectively select the tactics to reach your goals in addressing your identified problem.

  • PREVENTION: Aims to prevent an abuse from happening
  • INTERVENTION: Aims to intervene in ongoing or long-standing abuses and denial of human rights
  • RESTORATIVE: Aims to restore and rebuild people’s lives and communities after abuse has taken place, to heal, seek justice, and reconciliation
  • PROMOTION: Aims to promote human rights by building communities and cultures where rights are understood, strengthened, respected, and to advance a vision for a free and fair society

TACTICAL MAP: A tool developed by New Tactics in Human Rights to help organizations visualize the contextual terrain of human relationships –the people, groups, organizations and institutions involved in maintaining abuses or the status quo, as well as those seeking to make change – to select and evaluate targets for tactical actions. The tactical map distinguishes five types of relationships:

  • POWER RELATIONSHIPS: One person has power over another.
  • EXPLOITATIVE RELATIONSHIPS: One person not only has power but is gaining something else too, like corruption (money, in-kind goods, sexual favors, etc.).
  • MUTUAL RELATIONSHIPS: Each side gains equitably.
  • CONFLICT RELATIONSHIPS: Conflict between people; institutions.
  • ADDITIONAL RESEARCH/UNKNOWN:  These are relationships that require more research before identification.

[1] New Tactics in Human Rights adapted the original “Spectrum of Allies” from seven to five segments. The Spectrum of Allies comes from Martin Oppenheimer and George Lakey, A Manual for Direct Action, Quadrangle Books, 1965, and can be found on Training for Change ( The original spectrum identified seven segments: 1) Active Allies; 2) Passive Allies; 3) Friendly Neutrals; 4) Oblivious Neutrals; 5) Hostile Neutrals; 6) Passive Opponents; and 7) Active Opponents. New Tactics modified the spectrum to five segments, and includes only one “Neutral” segment.